This next presentation contains one of the strongest cases I have ever made for this system being our reality. For example, with radioactivity we know that beta electrons and gamma rays come out from nuclei. So they must be in nucleons or between them. If they are in them then nucleons aren't made of just a few quarks each. That's merely applying common sense.  —  James D. Littrell

If all that exists has always had mass and negative charge were a misinterpretation that's actually off track, then a system like this would explain how things really work. 

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                                                Magnetism, Electrical Conductors and Sunspots

In magnets, middle charged photons are attracted to positions on nuclei where some have been scoured away by radiation, which causation includes the material being heated to a particularly high level. Middle charged photons are attracted to refill those positions yet can't land because the ones behind them, which are attracted to those vacancies as well, keep knocking the ones ahead of them forward so that they keep going and make another circuit around and through the polar structure of the material. Yet they don't actually “knock” them on ahead because they can't touch since they possess significant mutual repel; thus their repel pushes them on ahead whenever they get too close to one another. Also, the greater the number of those vacancies, which many middle charged photons that are somewhat nearby are attracted to, the stronger the magnet. Meanwhile, the configuration of the material's lattices, i.e. its molecular type structuring, causes the flow of those photons to be polar as they flow easily through it in a north-south fashion as opposed to moving through it in any other direction on its other four sides (i.e. the two other possible linear directions that are perpendicular).

In some attracted materials—like iron, steel, cobalt and nickel—which structures are not as polar as magnetite (aka lodestone) or alnico compounds that chiefly contain iron, some of the electric photons on their outer shell's electrons get knocked off by the magnetic field, which moves the material toward the magnet as those attempt to be restocked from that field while those electrons are also attracted to the field's photons flowing through their atoms as well as the magnet. This is why an iron or steel bar attaches to any side of a magnet, which isn't due to electric/magnet photons being unable to approach the magnet's nuclei from those other four nonpolar sides. They can; they just aren't as inclined to because many more collisions would occur.

Electric current can be induced by the use of magnets or by a contrast of the electric photon loading in a layer of two separate elements, a layer that is just over or next to those elements' nuclei, if the two materials come into contact or close enough range (close range if the voltage/contrast is high enough). Also, in magnetic fields induced by electric current, as with solenoids, the flux lines of electric photons are deflected out as the current passes through the wire, which knocks off some of those photons on the electrons in the outer shell of any nearby iron, cobalt or nickel so that the attraction to those places of deficit causes those materials to draw in to the electrically magnetized metal (surrounded by the wire coil) close enough to have some of the surfaces of their nuclei similarly disturbed as the electromagnet nuclei have been. In a solenoid, the wrapping (wrappings) of its copper wire does not become significantly magnetic, just as how copper is not attracted to a permanent magnet. It's the flux lines due to electric current flowing through it which causes the deficits in the iron, steel, cobalt or nickel that the wire is wrapped around. 

Iron, cobalt and nickel are the 26th, 27th, and 28th elements of the periodic table successively. The reason they are attracted to magnets while metals such as copper and zinc—the 29th and 30th elements—are not attracted has to do with the type of outer electron shell that iron, cobalt and nickel have, which is different from the outermost shells of every other element. In my system the electrons in that shell would have a 7 photon mass with six yellow photons covering a center completely uncharged black photon; while its six surface photons are all the same type (the higher charged of two types of electric photons) that participate in both magnetic fields and electric current. When these get knocked off (or mutual repel actually ejects them) by entering a magnetic field they need those deficits refilled by the type of photons flowing in the magnetic field, all while the nearest photons of that type make up the magnetic field, which attracts the metal to both the magnetic field as well as the magnet itself. The reason such metals (iron, cobalt and nickel) become temporarily magnetized is that while the loss of yellow photons from electrons in their outer shell is what first draws them in, if they remain submersed in the magnetic field for long they start to have that same type of photon knocked off the surfaces of their nuclei, like the permanent magnet has that is attracting them... which when pulled away from the magnetic field they will attract other iron, cobalt, or nickel like a magnet for the same reason; except their structure is typically not as polar as a permanent magnet which leads to collisions of many of those incoming yellow and yellow-green photons (colors that help designate two of the three most middle charged photon types in my system). Thus slowing, therefore the ability to fill those deficits by sticking to those specific locations is obtained once again. The reason several of the other elements that are not attracted to magnets become slightly or mildly magnetized for a short time after being placed against a magnet for a significant period of time is that the same thing happens to their nuclei: Some of their electric type (yellow and yellow-green) photons get knocked off (i.e. pushed off by mutual repel when an encounter between two is too direct since yellow photons most likely cannot collide under any circumstances because of the level of their innate mutual repel) so that the nuclei of those other metals, metals such as zinc or gallium, have a temporary deficit within them as well; which then reverts back so those lose that mild magnetism rather quickly.

The reason copper isn't attracted to a magnet is that it has a small loading of the next type electron shell over its 7 mass type shell—a 27 mass beta electron shell just past its 7 mass neutrino electron shell—which type of electron is not only more stable, but its size and shape help keep its yellow type photons away from that vulnerability to being knocked off. Furthermore, since these yellow type photons reside on all electron surfaces, they can actually induce a mild, or sometimes even strong, repel to a magnetic field; whereas since such electron shells should typically orbit within the same plane (while the radio shells nearer to a nucleus are spherical and envelop any and all nuclei) the beta 27 shell should serve to protect the 7 mass neutrino electron shell below it by both residing in the same plane and repelling the magnetic field photons so that most of any would-be virtual collisions of magnet particles with neutrino electrons are prevented, also with respect to metals such as tungsten, silver, platinum, gold, lead, etc.

Meanwhile, the Curie temperature of a magnetic material demagnetizes it because the excessive heating begins to randomize its structure enough so that any lost electric type photons from their nuclei can finally be restocked since a loss of polarity in the structure creates collisions, thus much more slowing of incoming electric photons attempting to restock those positions. Therefore they become capable of landing and sticking. Related to this: Atom temperature, the reason it attempts to be residual or ongoing to some extent when the radiation causing it is removed, concerns orbiting of both electrons shells (if they are present, which they are apparently not in all elements below the mass of iron) and/or the radio shells that spawn orbiters from any of their outermost spherical shells when the temperature rises—over their nuclei via momentum (momentum being the desire to continue) which causes that shell's particles to collide with some of the surrounding subatomic particles, which collisions send them out as kinetic type matter-energy since those will collide into many more things, which is what is behind typical heat energy.

Copper is a great conductor of electricity; while the very first battery was the voltaic pile that utilized the flow of electric photons from zinc into copper. Such battery-type electric currents typically continue until a gradual change in the materials used prevents that flow; but zinc should be able to restock its own electric layer—its layer that contains yellow and yellow-green photons—from the surrounding subatomic particle environment for a good amount of time while continuing to share those with the copper. Wherefore, the electric layer that is over a nucleus, and next to it, is under all of its radio shells, which layer of single middle charged photons can however extend on out so that many reside in between the radio shells when a nucleus takes on an additional loading of those, which should result in the loss of some radio shell particles since in this system being overloaded to make an anion, or to be shorted to be a cation, would be impossible because that is unnatural, since such a condition would always create a magnetic field that attempts to restock any such shortage; while any excess would have no reason to occur.

Some element nuclei have a greater propensity to hold electric photons, to have a greater loading of those where they would reside relative to a nucleus. This is caused by the proportion of surface protons to surface neutrons since electric loading doesn't occur right over neutrons because their surfaces have too much repel for any of those to hover immediately over them. Proton surfaces have much less surface repel which allows electric photons to take up residence immediately over them. The reason those form a layer over protons, a layer that is closer to a nucleus than all of the radio shells, has to do with single photons being fleeter; thus they respond quicker to attractions than all of the radio shell particles with more mass. Therefore radio shell particles have more inertia or resistance to being accelerated in that way as they arrive to those closest positions over nuclei later; while the repel from the earlier arriving electric photons force the next arriving R-3 shell particles (i.e. radio shells with particles having a mass of 3) to form a shell just beyond them. However, electric photons can supplant some of the radio particles in any of their shells if there is enough disturbance to many of those radio particles so that electric photons can take some of their places. Such a disturbance happens in lead-acid batteries (by an electric current sent in reverse or back into the terminal that is connected to inner plates that were originally composed of pure lead as opposed to the other plates that were originally composed of lead oxide)... also by the turning of a copper wire rotor between north and south magnet poles facing such a rotor, which creates enough disturbance in those radio shells for many of the magnetic field's electric photons to take up residence in those radio shells; also some in between them, as some radio particles are lost back to the environment.

That environment has at least thirteen subatomic particle types that reside in atoms, not counting the inner constituents (singles like the uncharged black photon) that take part in many of their composites... while counting three singles: the yellow-orange (a gamma type) along with the yellow and yellow-green singles. However, infrared particles, which don't have strong mid-positives on their surfaces, which composites carry more of the characteristics of blue-green and green photon singles (that participate in visible light) are ubiquitous as well and do attach to nuclei but get discharged when being replaced by yellow photons, yellow-green, or yellow-orange whenever combustion occurs. But those aren't what should be thought of as the more natural residents on a nucleus, not as natural as yellow, yellow-green and yellow-orange singles. Also regarding infrared particles: There may be enough charge contrast between a positron (the outermost electron shell in larger nuclei like those of silver, gold or lead) that has two or three yellow-orange photons on its surface for an infrared particle to attach to it, or even stay on a nucleus surface after a combustion discharge if it happens to be right over a pair of yellow-orange photons that would help hold it down. Keep in mind that most types of composites, whether those that typically participate in making up atom constituents or not, can have small variations, nevertheless remain in a given category. All of these are in prolific supply, quite ubiquitous; though some much more than others which is why the four (or possibly five) electron shells beyond the spherical radio shells only have enough of each type within the general environment to make planar (not spherical) shells. It's the proportions in the environment which dictate that, as well as their ability to be accelerated relative to their mass. (Also, the repelling constituents in the particles of any shell type also help decide its location out from a nucleus, not just mass.)

Electric photons can bleed off from a higher than normal loading, which should generally happen due to collisions (collisions where any mutual repel is very low) or virtual collisions (when mutual repel is fairly high). Any lost radio shell particles, from a normal loading, will eventually find their way back to their particular (discrete) shells. When two metals with different normal loadings of electric photons come into contact, the subatomic particle environment will be changed on the side where their contact occurs relative to the material that has a lower loading yet would take on more were the environment richer or more prolific in its supply of those electric photons. Thus it siphons off some from the more richly loaded element as copper does when in contact with zinc, i.e. in contact through an acidic or basal electrolytic liquid (or gel) which needs to be present between them since an attraction from the electrolyte moves things enough for some electric photons to flow from the zinc into the copper as more are pulled in to restock things to the normal loading in the zinc, which keeps things flowing. (However, most electrolytes in batteries serve as a chemical barrier to prevent such flows while also exerting a helpful holding effect on the electric loading in one of the two sides as well.) In copper wire from a dynamo, the copper has a hunger for more electric photons if the environment could supply it with that, so that the connected copper atoms provide the additional loading, supplied by the turning rotor next to a magnet, on down the line; while any unused photons—as opposed to those that are lost via flux lines surrounding the system's wire, etc.—making up all of that current either discharge into the ground (literally the ground) in a 120 volt AC circuit or else head back to the north pole of a magnet that faces the rotor at the power plant in a 120 volt system's accompanying 240 volt circuit, which current originated from a magnet's south pole facing the rotor. 

All of this restocking happens automatically and is caused by natural attractions relative to what a ubiquitous subatomic environment can supply. Now when these magnet/electric photons circulate through magnets they tend to pull in more than will smoothly flow through from one's north pole to one's south pole, which tends to make small eddies at the entrance pole (i.e. its north pole). This tendency would be exaggerated when two unsymmetrically shaped and sized magnets are placed parallel to one another with one south pole over a north pole and one north pole over a south pole as in the Stern-Gerlach experiment, which created a very pronounced eddy. The same thing happens when a strong magnet's south pole is horseshoe shaped, only with more curvature so that its south pole faces its north pole, or else when one strong electromagnet's south pole faces another strong electromagnet's north pole at close range. Electric photons from the surrounding environment are attracted to enter the north pole end—i.e. a number of photons over and above what speedily exits the south pole and crosses over directly to enter the north pole. This creates a superfluity of those photons, which when combined with their mutual repel many will deflect out to the side from the north pole and then circle back around to attempt reentry into the north pole, which creates an eddy that essentially circles the north pole in a 3D perpendicular manner that curves over close to the south pole as the flow comes back around, which is what causes beta particles (which are electrons) that are ejected from a radioactive substance, then sent through the field between the magnet poles, to curve left, opposite from the much more massive alpha particle (helium nucleus) which is almost unaffected due to its high mass. The beta curves left with the eddy, and were it to continue with the eddy it would make a complete circle, but it flies out on its own after exhibiting some of the eddy's circular path.

Regarding the Sun, those loops of super hot gas that form a circular pattern are essentially eddies relative to what is in principle another magnetic field. If all subatomic particles, whether singles or composites, consist of photons, each with an innate charge level (or no charge at all) then the Sun must restock the ones it sends out as light so that such light can be ongoing. The surface color of the Sun is variegated for this reason. Where the Sun sends out single photons, X-rays, infrared, etc., it's surface is brighter than areas where incoming particles are entering to restock what has been lost by collisions (and most likely many, many virtual collisions) with electrons that speed up when com-pressed down to orbit just over the surfaces of their atom's nuclei in a middle layer of the Sun; not in the Sun's center where compression is much too great for that to happen. Where those looping eddies join up with a greater concentration of incoming particles that are coming from a more prolific supply in a given direction, a dark sunspot will appear. The eddy itself is caused by that greater concentration of incoming particles. For as they reach the inner level or depth within the Sun where restocking happens, there is once again a superfluity so that some deflect and return to the surface which makes those eddies. This happens because many of those photons (as well as some composites) are also coming in where the Sun's surface is a bit darker than its brighter patches, which particles are all arriving to atoms whose constituents are being spent for light; as some are deflected back up to the surface due to a superfluity. The ones deflected back up emerge near where the greater intake occurs, on a side or direction from which a greater concentration is being attracted in.

Note: This is the way things would work if to exist everything must have mass. That's what this particle system and atom model are all about. Also, I have always assumed magnetism begins with electric type photons scoured from nucleus surfaces by radiation. However, like the vulnerable neutrino electron shell in iron, as well as cobalt and nickel, the R-4 shell, which should be present in every element from boron up, is just as vulnerable to having an electric photon knocked off so that it must be restocked, which would cause magnetism similar to how lost electric photons from a nucleus would. For all of the radio shells, at least when they are filled, encase a nucleus entirely as each is suspended or hovers in place. That kind of coverage would make them more likely to be hit and lose some of their electric photons than a nucleus surface perhaps. Therefore it may be the R-4 shell, which is present in well over 90% of the different elements (i.e. those with nuclei larger than beryllium), which loses some of its yellow photons to heat/radiation (heat that is not overly extreme) and causes magnetism in polar compounds like magnetite, alnico and neodymium magnets. The R-5 and R-6 shells could be similarly vulnerable to losing electric photons, but those shells only begin to  show up over nuclei starting with either calcium or scandium; and since they don't typically orbit they would require more disturbance via radiation because orbit velocity would assist the loss of electric photons by encounters when the side of the orbital path is counter to incoming radiation or the crossing flow of a magnetic field. However, let's say calcium is the first element in the periodic table's succession of elements to have an R-5 or R-6 shell, whichever should come next after the R-7 shell since they are so similar: If only 100 or less make up that next shell in say calcium, they would most likely orbit at all times (not make a spherical shell that hovers) which is what the electrons do. Then please keep in mind also that the equation used to assign radio shell spacing can be changed so that the room between shells is two or even three times as spacious. For when I was just getting started with this I may have not made all of those gaps spacious enough. 

This is the website accompaniment to the book, Existence Uniformity, that was published in late 2016. Though Existence Uniformity covers the question of the historical Jesus, while also going into many specifics about what a secular replacement philosophy for religious faith should entail—besides the presentation that the book makes concern-ing physics—this Endless Cycle Universe website concentrates on the physics portion of those ontological questions; which location can obviously include far more information than the book, like more on how these concepts were conceived before going through development and improvement, along with a little about some exclusion of what looks like less than a handful of mistaken items as well. There were three of those in the course of producing all of this: (1) When first launching into my studies of physics, radio wasn't thought to travel at exactly the same speed as visible light, which became my first major mistake; (2) Also, for a couple of years I thought that the alpha particle would serve as an electron instead of it being a helium nucleus, which question I finally worked through and was satisfied that alpha particles were indeed helium nuclei, as I eventually realized that beta particles were the electrons I was searching for; and then recently (3) In 2015 I hypothesized that an attraction emanating from all of the galaxies surrounding us in every direction might have some sort of an impact on the momentum of objects here, which during this past summer (in 2016) I realized was false. (The section with this error appears in red text in Symmetry in Motion on the orbits page.) 

That latest hypothesis of mine to fall, that gravity from galaxies contributes to momentum here, came in what has been an ongoing trial and error process over the last decade. This past summer, when writing the physics portion of the book, Existence Uniformity, a realization about thrust itself became much clearer to me: how that any form of thrust can produce its own momentum, wholly. Nevertheless, large attractive bodies that are not too distant do, in fact, alter momentum constantly, even as angular momentum is constantly becoming the result of that, which I have known quite well since first beginning to work on such questions.

The problem is that galaxies are simply too distant to have much of a gravitational impact on bodies or objects in other galaxies, typically speaking. In 2015, my hypothesis on that overestimated the gravitational tug coming from other galaxies. This was realized in 2016 when further developing what causes galaxies to spread. As I tried to produce new updated material for the book, I came to realize that the way protons and neutrons form is what has caused galaxies to spread, since there would be times when spewed material—charge particles, i.e. differently charged photons—would begin occurring once again in a cycle that always repeats; therefore that spewing itself creates its own momentum when there are no other galaxies out there to assist that material's continuous movement in a direction.